"Whenever you have a material that gives off a very bright pure light with a tiny amount of energy, people start getting excited" - Michael Edelman, CEO of UK-based Nanoco, a Quantum dot manufacturer.How does it work? These quantum dots, or QD's for short are mass-produced in a specific size such that it is capable of emitting red and green color only and then they are clustered together finely over a translucent sheet, altogether called as QDEF ( Quantum dot enhancement film). This sheet is placed over a blue back-light unit (BLU) in the display, so when the BLU unit shines pure blue light over the QDEF, it accurately produces perfect Red and Green color, giving you the 'true' combination of RGB. Then LCM ( Liquid crystal module) is the topmost sheet consisting of thousands of color pixels which filters the RGB colors produced by QDEF and results in the production of an image which is perfectly color balanced. Why can't we make QDEF to produce all colors? In order to do so, it is required to fit in numerous crystals of all sizes to exhibit all wavelengths of the color spectrum but when the back-light is shown on it, the colors emitted by individual crystals will interact and super-impose colors produced by other neighboring crystals which will ultimately result in not-so-perfect image, which is undesirable. Hence, the colors produced by QDEF are limited only to RG. ( Blue is produced directly by the BLU unit) Quantum dots, due to all points discussed above, can be the number one research and development field in the near future. To witness its true potential, get a 4K display with a QD technology.
Quantum dots, the next breakthrough in display technologies are nothing but small tiny semiconductor crystals capable of emitting a single wavelength of light, that means that they can give off a specific color precisely. They are just 10 nano-meters wide, around 30,000 times smaller than the human hair. This ability to emit monochromatic light of any desired wavelength is one of the crucial reasons why quantum dots are liked by many scientists as well as companies like Sony and Samsung who want to improve their display of their products. Size matters Though the size of a quantum dot is extremely small, the color it emits is dependent on its crystal size. For instance, bigger dots which are around 50 atoms wide will give off red light where as smaller ones being 30 atoms wide will emit green light. It is as simple as that. Determining the size of the crystal is done by calculating how many atoms it has inside and hence controlling the emitted light becomes extremely possible. Highly Energy efficient One of the biggest advantage in employing these quantum dots in a device's display is that it is extremely energy-efficient. It only requires a small amount of energy to operate, 30% lesser in fact. So it takes only a fraction of the total current require to power up an OLED display which significantly increases the battery life and moreover, gives accurate and vibrant colors.